By Madhu . S
There are currently 2,133 government run Industrial Training Institutes or commonly referred to as ITI’s in India with can accommodate 4,32,006 students (DGET, 2010). These cater to the vocational training requirements of the huge country. Adding to the number of private ITI’s which number 5906 and providing training facilities for 6, 83,622, the total number of ITI’s in India is 8039 catering to a student population of 11,15,628. These are based on the estimates of the number of seats available in all the ITI’s in India which need not necessarily be taken up. The numbers shall be seen in reference to the total number of student population in India, especially those passing out from 10th or 12th Standard. If you take the entire population of children (boys and girls) under 14 years there is one ITI serving 9,975 children in India. Currently ITI’s enroll students between the age group of 14-26, therefore the ratio of ITI to the population will vary again.
Currently there are multitudes of schemes of various Departments providing vocation training to students. In addition to this separate schemes exist to cover rural and tribal youth, artisans, craftsmen, adolescent women and marginalized sections of the society. For eg: Ministry of Labour oversees 5,114 ITI’s through it’s Craftsmen Training Scheme and 20,800 establishments through the Apprenticeship Training Scheme. There are 10,000 vocational schools 2,297 engineering colleges and 1675 polytechnics under the Ministry for Human Resources Development.
The Skill Development Mission introduced by the Planning Commission is proposed to be setup in 26 states and 6 Union Territories. With the National Skill Development Policy, 2009 aiming to provide skills to 500 million people by 2020 the ITI’s and the ITC’s have got a definite push. At the same time 109 million at set to attain working age by 2012 out of which 57 million is likely to be dropouts or illiterates. Boston Consulting Group (BCG) estimates that India is likely to increase deficit of 5.25 million employable graduates and vocationally trained workforce by 2012. Meanwhile, the National Skill Development Corporation set up by the Central Government has projected to train 150 million by 2022 with a corpus of Rs 1,000 crore which is yet to be allotted.
The numbers of schemes, training programmes and enrollment ratio is supposed to give a positive state of skill based vocations training for students in India. However, the reality is far from the numbers, especially with the unemployment ratio hovering around 9 percent. NASSCOM in 2010 reported that 75 percent of the fresh engineering graduates recruited by domestic IT providers are un-employable. The unorganized sector that employs 93 percent of the workforce produces 60 percent of the GDP.
Recently, the Labour Ministry came out with a striking news that unemployment is highest in highly qualified rural youth. It stands at 13.9% for rural areas against 7.6% in urban areas. “Not only unemployment among rural graduates and post-graduates is higher, but also they lack basic skill-sets to fill the demands of market economy. The dangerous trend, if anything, may offset the gains by India at the literacy front.” (DNA India September 18, 2012).
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